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Name

Date

 

1.

The Young-Helmholtz theory proposes that:

A)

there are three different types of color-sensitive cones.

B)

retinal cells are excited by one color and inhibited by its complementary color.

C)

there are four different types of cones.

D)

rod, not cone, vision accounts for our ability to detect fine visual detail.

 

2.

Which of the following is the correct order of the structures through which light passes after entering the eye?

A)

lens, pupil, cornea, retina

B)

pupil, cornea, lens, retina

C)

pupil, lens, cornea, retina

D)

cornea, retina, pupil, lens

E)

cornea, pupil, lens, retina

 

3.

Opponent-process cells have been located in the:

A)

thalamus.

B)

cochlea.

C)

retina.

D)

cornea.

E)

spinal cord.

 

4.

Humans experience the longest visible electromagnetic waves as the color ________ and the shortest visible waves as ________.

A)

blue-violet; red

B)

red; green

C)

blue; yellow

D)

red; blue-violet

E)

black; white

 

5.

Low-pitched sounds are to high-pitched sounds as ________ colors are to ________ colors.

A)

red; blue

B)

yellow; red

C)

purple; green

D)

green; orange

E)

purple; red

 

6.

Most color-deficient people will probably:

A)

lack functioning red- or green-sensitive cones.

B)

see the world in only black and white.

C)

also suffer from poor vision.

D)

have above-average vision to compensate for the deficit.

 

7.

The feature detectors identified by Hubel and Weisel respond to specific aspects of ________ stimulation.

A)

taste

B)

visual

C)

auditory

D)

olfactory

E)

kinesthetic

 

8.

When looking at the hands of a clock signifying 8 o'clock, certain brain cells in the visual cortex are more responsive than if the hands signify 10 o'clock. This is most indicative of:

A)

sensory interaction.

B)

feature detection.

C)

parallel processing.

D)

sensory interaction.

E)

accommodation.

 

9.

Rods are ________ light-sensitive and ________ color-sensitive than are cones.

A)

more; more

B)

less; less

C)

more; less

D)

less; more

 

10.

After staring at a very intense red stimulus for a few minutes, Carrie shifted her gaze to a beige wall and "saw" the color ________. Carrie's experience provides support for the ________ theory.

A)

green; trichromatic

B)

blue; opponent-process

C)

green; opponent-process

D)

blue; trichromatic

 

11.

Rod is to transduction as ________ is to accommodation.

A)

pupil

B)

cone

C)

lens

D)

cornea

E)

iris

 

12.

The ability to simultaneously process the pitch, loudness, melody, and meaning of a song best illustrates:

A)

sensory interaction.

B)

kinesthesis.

C)

accommodation.

D)

subliminal perception.

E)

parallel processing.

 

13.

In order to experience color constancy it is helpful to view things:

A)

from very short distances.

B)

for long periods of time.

C)

under low levels of illumination.

D)

in relation to surrounding objects.

 

14.

Visual information is processed by ________ before it is processed by _______.

A)

feature detectors; rods and cones

B)

ganglion cells; feature detectors

C)

bipolar cells; rods and cones

D)

feature detectors; bipolar cells

E)

the optic nerve; ganglion cells

 

15.

The process by which our sensory systems convert stimulus energies into neural messages is called:

A)

accommodation.

B)

sensory adaptation.

C)

transduction.

D)

parallel processing.

E)

sensory interaction.

 

16.

The amount of light entering the eye is regulated by the:

A)

lens.

B)

iris.

C)

retina.

D)

optic nerve.

E)

feature detectors.

 

17.

Frequency theory is to pitch as the Young-Helmholtz theory is to:

A)

pain.

B)

amplitude.

C)

hue.

D)

kinesthesis.

E)

brightness.

 

18.

The size of the pupil is controlled by the:

A)

lens.

B)

retina.

C)

cornea.

D)

iris.

 

19.

If images of distant objects are typically focused at a point in front of the retina, a person will:

A)

have a larger-than-normal blindspot.

B)

be nearsighted.

C)

have unusually good visual acuity.

D)

be farsighted.

 

20.

Assuming that the visual systems of humans and other mammals function similarly, you would expect that the retina of a nocturnal mammal (one active only at night) would contain:

A)

mostly cones.

B)

mostly rods.

C)

an equal number of rods and cones.

D)

more bipolar cells than an animal active only during the day.

 

21.

I am a cell in the thalamus that is excited by red and inhibited by green. I am a(n):

A)

feature detector.

B)

cone.

C)

bipolar cell.

D)

opponent-process cell.

E)

rod.

 

22.

As the football game continued into the night, LeVar noticed that he was having difficulty distinguishing the colors of the players' uniforms. This is because the ________, which enable color vision, have a ________ absolute threshold for brightness than the available light intensity.

A)

rods; higher

B)

cones; higher

C)

rods; lower

D)

cones; lower

 

23.

The cochlea is to the ear as the ________ is to the eye.

A)

pupil

B)

retina

C)

lens

D)

cornea

E)

optic nerve

 

24.

In additive color mixing, the combination of red, green, and blue creates ________; in subtractive color mixing, the combination of red, yellow, and blue creates ________.

A)

white; white

B)

white; black

C)

yellow; green

D)

black; white

E)

black; black

 

25.

Evidence that some cones are especially sensitive to red light, others to green light, and still others to blue light is most directly supportive of the ________ theory.

A)

frequency

B)

Young-Helmholtz

C)

gate-control

D)

opponent-process

E)

signal detection

 

26.

Which of the following explains why a rose appears equally red in bright and dim light?

A)

the Young-Helmholtz theory

B)

the opponent-process theory

C)

feature detection

D)

color constancy

 

27.

The human ability to outperform computers in speedily recognizing familiar objects best illustrates the value of:

A)

accommodation.

B)

kinesthesis.

C)

subliminal stimulation.

D)

sensory interaction.

E)

parallel processing.

 

28.

The blind spot is located in the area of the retina:

A)

called the fovea.

B)

that contains rods but no cones.

C)

where the optic nerve leaves the eye.

D)

where bipolar cells connect with ganglion cells.

 

29.

One light may appear reddish and another greenish if they differ in:

A)

wavelength.

B)

amplitude.

C)

opponent processes.

D)

brightness.

 

30.

Hubel and Wiesel discovered feature detectors in the ________ of a monkey's visual system.

A)

fovea

B)

optic nerve

C)

iris

D)

cortex

E)

retina

 

31.

Nearsightedness is a condition in which the:

A)

lens has become inflexible.

B)

lens is too thin.

C)

eyeball is longer than normal.

D)

eyeball is shorter than normal.

 

32.

According to the opponent-process theory:

A)

there are three types of color-sensitive cones.

B)

the process of color vision begins in the cortex.

C)

neurons involved in color vision are stimulated by one color's wavelength and inhibited by another's.

D)

all of the above are true.

 

33.

Color constancy refers to the fact that:

A)

light waves reflected by an object remain constant despite changes in lighting.

B)

objects are perceived to be the same color even if the light they reflect changes.

C)

the perceived color of an object has a constant relation to its brightness.

D)

the frequency of light waves is directly proportional to the light's wavelength.

 

34.

Ms. Shields, a recent stroke victim, cannot consciously perceive the large book on the coffee table in front of her. Yet, when urged to identify the book, she correctly reads aloud the printed title on the book cover. Her response best illustrates:

A)

subliminal perception.

B)

sensory adaptation.

C)

the illusory truth effect.

D)

blindsight.

E)

sensory interaction.

 

35.

The feature detectors identified by Hubel and Weisel consist of:

A)

nerve cells in the brain.

B)

rods and cones.

C)

bipolar cells.

D)

ganglion cells.

 

36.

Our rods and cones differ with respect to their sensitivity to both fine detail and to dim light. First describe how they differ and then explain why they differ.

 

 

Answer Key

1.

A

2.

E

3.

A

4.

D

5.

A

6.

A

7.

B

8.

B

9.

C

10.

C

11.

C

12.

E

13.

D

14.

B

15.

C

16.

B

17.

C

18.

D

19.

B

20.

B

21.

D

22.

B

23.

B

24.

B

25.

B

26.

D

27.

E

28.

C

29.

A

30.

D

31.

C

32.

C

33.

B

34.

D

35.

A

36.